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Understanding the Enterprise Energy Ecosystem

Selco foundation, undertook a research project on understanding the enterprise energy ecosystem in the Kheri and Pilibhit districts in UP and Kalahandi and Koraput in Orissa. Selco wanted to understand the uses of energy in the areas near the forest. MORSEL conducted Focus Group Discussion in 33 specific villages in Kheri and PiIlibhit and 26 specific villages in Kalahandi and Koraput, provided all the required materials and collected digital data and audio recordings of the field study.

Location : Kheri and Pilibhit districts in UP and Kalahandi and Koraput in Orissa

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Energy demand assessment

Funded by GSES India Sustainable Energy Pvt. Ltd in this project Morsel is trying to get a sense of energy demand in two villages in Uttar Pradesh. This project is being monitored bySmart Power for Rural Development India Foundation.

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Electricity supply monitoring initiative

It is an effort made by Prayas (Energy Group) a to develop a reliable database on interruptions and voltage levels at consumer locations in India. MORSEL is providing support to deploy and monitoring of ESMs in three districts of Uttar Pradesh.

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Can Solar Light Change The Rural Life: An Experiment In Uttar Pradesh

Directed by : Professor Johannes Urpelainen (Columbia University).

In this randomized controlled trial, researchers from Columbia University, New York University, and the University of Washington, St. Louis, evaluated the impact of Mera Gao Power‘s solar microgrids. In the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh, 100 habitations were surveyed for a variety of socio-economic indicators. 40 habitations were chosen for microgrid deployment and impacts measured several times over a period of 6-24 months. MORSEL conducted the surveys and supported the monitoring and implementation of the microgrid deployment. The principal investigator was Professor Johannes Urpelainen (Columbia University).

Location : Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh

Status : Completed

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A Study on Consumer Preferences for Solar Off-Grid Products

Schatz Energy Research Center Supported by the Lighting Asia/India Program, International Finance Corporation IFC Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) at Humboldt State University in the United States is implementing a consumer preferences study that is supported by the Lighting Asia/India Program, IFC. In the past two years, the Indian government has significantly intensified grid electrification efforts in rural India. While the village level electrification rate has increased substantially, grid electricity remains unreliable in many areas. At the same time, the off-grid solar sector continues to deliver products to rural customers in India. Given this backdrop, the SERC team led by Dr. Arne Jacobson and Richa Goyal are studying consumer preferences for off-grid solar products and the role that solar technologies can play in bridging the energy access gap in cases where grid electricity is unreliable or not available.

The study will investigate consumer preferences for a set of technical and non-technical features of a range of off-grid solar lighting products, including whether preferences vary by gender, income, and other factors.

MORSEL is the fieldwork implementation partner for this study and is helping collect primary data from consumers and retailers of solar off-grid products in four states in India."

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Livelihoods, migration and regeneration of forests in central India

Forests provide timber, fuelwood, fodder, non-timber forest products and a range of ecosystem services that support livelihoods for millions of people. As people migrate to cities for seasonal employment, their dependence on forest resources is likely to change. Moreover, afforestation with plantations and forest degradation may alter the ability of households to pursue forest-based livelihoods. Better understanding of these processes are crucial for designing policies that maximize the positive benefits and mitigate negative impacts of forest degradation and reforestation for both people and forests. Professor Ruth DeFries and Professor Johannes Urpelainen are conducting the largest of its kind survey in three states in the Central Indian Highlands. Morsel is collecting data on their behalf from 5000 HHs in 500 villages and collecting GPS coordinates of afforestation efforts by forest department. This project is funded by NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

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Solar Light: An Impact Evaluation In Bihar

Directed by : Professor Johannes Urpelainen.

In this field experiment, researchers from Columbia University collaborate with a non-governmental organization, Nidan, to provide a marginalized population, street vendors, with access to high-quality solar lighting. Nidan offers solar power to a random sample of 30 vendor clusters in a total sample of 70 such clusters. MORSEL has conducted a mapping of all marketplaces in Patna and is doing detailed surveys of 1,000 randomly sampled street vendors in three survey waves. The principal investigator is Professor Johannes Urpelainen.

Location : Bihar

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Solar Lanterns: A Marketing Experiment

Directed by : Milind Kandlikar (University of British Columbia) and Johannes Urpelainen (Columbia University).

Researchers from Columbia University and University of British Columbia tested the effect of contracting arrangements on people’s willingness to pay for solar lanterns in small, marginalized villages in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India. In the marketing experiment, local volunteers sell solar lanterns to villagers under different contracting arrangements and implement a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak type game to elicit unbiased estimates of willingness to pay. MORSEL is responsible for training the volunteers, overseeing their work, and preparing a dataset for analysis. The principal investigators was Milind Kandlikar (University of British Columbia) and Johannes Urpelainen (Columbia University).

Location : Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India

Status: Completed

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Promoting Solar Lighting In Rural India: From Local Needs To Public Policy

Directed by : Johannes Urpelainen, Assistant Professor at Columbia University

This survey tested local need of solar light. Political Scientist, Johannes Urpelainen, Assistant Professor at Columbia University, tested that whether the positive sight of solar lamps can impact lives or not. For this purpose, the researcher took a sample of 400 households (after house listing) in two gram panchayat at Shajahanpur district from Uttar Pradesh. These gram panchayats are very close to Roja Thermal Power plant. MORSEL interviewed same families two times after a gap of 4 days to get an idea about people perception.

Location : Uttar Pradesh

Status : Completed

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The Economic Causes Of Crop Residue Burning In The Rice-Wheat System Of The Indo-Gangetic Plain

Directed by : Ridhima Gupta and Professor E. Somanathan (ISI)

This project was to examine the impact of means of farming on pollution. As Punjab, a North Indian state, where main occupation is agriculture, the farmers are using high-tech equipment compared to other parts of India. This survey based study was focused on machine by name Zero Till. This machine can plough the rice residue in the field and this can improve the fertility of land and there will be no need to burn rice residue. However some of the farmers think this method to be too time and money consuming.

MORSEL was involved in this project in pilot survey and sampling process. The survey was held in 4 districts of Punjab.

Location : Uttar Pradesh

Status : Completed

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Climate Change: Challenges Facing India’s Poor

Directed by : Professor E. Somanathan (ISI) and Professor Rohini Somanathan (Delhi School of economics)

In this project we came across many climatic tit-bits. As flood is the main cause of climatic change and everybody knows about flood in Kosi River at Bihar during August-September 2008. Researchers studied the flood-affected areas in Bihar (A state of India, where about 80 percent population is living in rural areas).

MORSEL had done a survey along the Kosi River’s new course. Researchers selected 10 villages along the new course of river, situated approximately 14.5 Kms away from each other. MORSEL was involved from pilot survey to final data entry. Researchers are planning to go to the same village in 2010 to find the changes.

Location : Bihar

Status : Completed

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Green Ho Jao Campaign

Sponsored by: State Bank of India

The campaign catered all age groups and it conveyed the message ‘Save the trees’. MORSEL organized a road show and Nukkar- Natak, which gathered every class and group. We organized this show in the shopping mall area of Lucknow, capital of Uttar Pradesh. This method helped us to spread our message to large no. of population. Families in large numbers used malls, if we could deliver our messages to atleast 100 families, that means, we succeeded in spreading our message to a minimum of 300 people.This campaign was covered by all the media houses from Radio City to Hindustan times. The attraction of this campaign was our two slogans. One slogan was in Hindi and another in English. it helped to connect with masses.

एक प्लांट को फ्रेंड बनाओ, एक नया दोस्त घर लाओ

Location : Uttar Pradesh

Status : Completed

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Solar Home System: Can Demonstration Affect The Choice Of Customer

Directed by : Ashna Arora

In collaboration with the social enterprise Boond, researchers from Columbia University identified the effect of solar home system demonstrations on sales in rural villages in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India. Boond has set up an energy center and designed a demonstration schedule over six months in 38 villages. MORSEL was responsible for conducting baseline and endline surveys, as well as overseeing the implementation of the field experiment on a daily basis. The principal investigator is Professor Johannes Urpelainen

Location : Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India

Status : Completed

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Shakti Survey

Directed by : Johannes Urpelainen, Associate Professor of Politicial Science in Columbia University.

This project was funded by Shakti Foundation and Columbia University. Council on Energy, Environment and Water is also partner of the project. This project aimed to collect household information of energy and fuel usage and equipments. For this, MORSEL selected households (HHS) by using PPS design and Systematic Random Sampling. We surveyed 8,568 housheolds in 6 states of India. The states were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal. Duration of the assignment was about 2 months.

Location : Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal

Status : Completed

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Social Learning, Gender, and Willingness to Pay for Solar Lanterns

Directed by : Professor Johannes Urpelainen , Yonas Alem and Eugenie Dugoua

In this field experiment researchers tried to find out impact of Social Learning on willingness to pay for a solar lantern on families in rural areas of India among both the genders. Under the supervision of Johannes Urpelainen ,Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Columbia University ( http://columbia.edu/~ju2178/), Yonas Alem a Postdoc Researcher, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, where he received his PhD in Economics. ( http://economics.handels.gu.se/english/staff/senior_lecturers-lecturers-_researchers/yonas_alem ) and Eugenie Dugoua a PhD candidate in Sustainable Development at the School of International and Public Affairs, at Columbia University.( https://sipa.columbia.edu/admissions/meet-sipa/profiles/eugeniedugoua) MORSEL distributed 200 solar lanterns for free and then used the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak method (BDM) game to sell the solar lantern. In this randomized control in Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh, MORSEL surveyed 1000 households in two shifts.

Location : Gonda district of Uttar Pradesh

Status : Completed

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A Frugal Innovation Approach to Dynamic Electricity Pricing in Rural India

Directed by: Professor Johannes Urpelainen and Professor Peter Lund

This experiment tests the applicability of a “frugal innovation” approach to dynamic pricing. The experimentwill be conducted as a collaboration between Aalto university, Columbia University and Boond which is a social enterprise. The goal is to conduct a rigorous randomized controlled trial on the feasibility of dynamic pricing characterized by poverty and low demand for electricity. Researchers have found a way to reduce the cost of off-grid systems and facilitate the expansion of off-grid electricity generation for the rural population.

An innovative pricing mechanism will be tested in field conditions in the Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh in India in total, seven pico-grids that will be installed in habitations. A pilot pico-grid is meant exclusively for testing and six additional pico-grids exclusively for data collection. MORSEL is collecting weekly data from the households and technical data from the energy meters as well.

Location : Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh

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Solar Home Systems and Rural Electrification in India: Promoting the Use of a Sustainable Energy Technology

Directed by : Urpelainen, Ruth DeFries and Semee Yoon

In collaboration with Boond a social enterprise, Columbia University conducted a randomized controlled trail on the promotion of Solar Home System (SHS) and the decision making of the people in Unnao district of UP. From two blocks with similar socio-economic characteristics, randomly 15 revenue villages and 5 revenue villages were chosen as treatment and control villages each. The service centre was deployed in only one of the development block for after sale service and maintenance of the SHS. The demonstration on how SHS is used and maintained was given and explained to the villagers. Following the demonstration they were given an opportunity to purchase the SHS at a lower cost. MORSEL conducted traditional baseline and end line survey of households who bought the SHS and conducted bimonthly mobile phone surveys of every village in the sample. The survey was funded by the Earth Institute at Columbia University under an Earth Clinic grant.

Location : Unnao district of UP

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Improving Accountability in Electricity Supply: A Field Experiment in Rural India

MORSEL Research and Development Pvt Ltd conducted a study to investigate whether information and citizen empowerment can improve participatory governance and in the longer run quality of electricity supply in rural India. This project is directed by Brian Blankenship, Johannes Urpelainen and Jason Wong. This project consist sample size of 12 village of roughly equal size where meters were installed with the help of Prayas NGO, which monitored the electricity supply in each village- namely, how many hours of service there were on a given day, and the number of outage. In this study, MORSEL asked respondents about their confidence in government, their perceptions, of government responsiveness to their concerns, and their satisfaction with their electricity supply. The study includes both conventional survey experiments and conjoint experiments on valuation of electricity supply.

Location : Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh

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Inverterless Survey

Directed By: CEEW and IIT Madras

IIT Madras has deployed about 4,000 DC solar home systems in remote habitations of Western Rajasthan. CEEW and IITM are conducting this study to understand people's energy needs and their willingness to pay for a certain level of energy services, as well as the impact these DC home systems on the socioeconomic condition of the households. Researchers selected 60 treatment HHs and 60 unelectrified HHs for assessment. Morsel collected primary data from selected HHs.

Location : Jaisalmer and Jodhpur, Rajasthan

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supply, expectations and willingness to get green energy

Directed By: David Blakeslee, Assistant Professor of Economics at NYU Abu Dhabi

Researcher is working in this region with Boond (an NGO), which is installing solar micro-grids in selected villages in Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh. Researchers selected 100 revenue villages. 50 villages got treatment by deployment of solar micro-grids. 50 villages are serving as control areas. Morsel is collecting baseline data from around 6000 HHs and collecting information about household characteristics; access to, and satisfaction with, electricity; familiarity with solar technologies; and the willingness to pay for solar electricity, amongst others. Morsel is helping to develop the survey instruments, piloting them in the field, and then conducting the surveys.

Location : Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

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Rural electrification and groundwater pumps in India: Evidence from the 1982–1999 period

India's groundwater extraction is heavily dependent on diesel pumps, and one reason is the lack of reliable power supply. The widespread use of diesel pumps is an economic problem due to the inefficiency and high cost of said pumps. Could rural electrification improve the situation? Researchers estimate the relationship between village electrification and the counts of electric and diesel pumps in India, 1982–1999. Under supervision of Johannes Urpelainen and Michael Graham Smith Morsel surveyed 2000 HHs at Bihar and Uttar Pradesh Border and Rajasthan and Gujarat Border.

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